Kamis, 04 Juni 2015

Global warming

Nama              : Niken  Yuanita
Kelas               : 4EA18
Tulisan             : Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2
Global warming

            Global warming is a process of increasing the temperature of the atmosphere, ocean, and land earth. increase in global temperature will cause changes such as rising sea levels, increased intensity of extreme weather phenomena, and others. Global warming may also result in agricultural output, loss of glaciers and the extinction of various animal species.From the data that is indeed the earth's temperature has increased from year to year. besides increasing the heat around us, you are of course also aware of the many natural phenomena that tend to be uncontrollable lately. ranging from floods, blowouts, to erratic rainfall from year to year.
Global pemanasasn is a global phenomenon that is caused by human activities around the world, petumbuhan technology, and industry. The following are examples that cause global warming, among others:
- Consumption of fossil fuel energy
- Industrial sector, which accounts for the largest carbon emissions
- Transport sector
- The livestock sector is one of the three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental crisis, at every scale from local to global
- The greenhouse effect (you can see more clearly here).
- Climate change is happening: dikutub ice cover north and south poles began to melt, glaciers in the tops of the mountains begins to melt (this led to rising sea levels), and the floods and landslides often occur.
- Tropical diseases spread
- Rise in the surface temperature of the earth
- Endless world of glaciers and water sources.
Global Warming, Prevention and Handling

            Global Warming or Global Warming is the increase in air temperature at Earth's surface and in the oceans that began in the 20th century and is predicted to continue to increase. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere, ocean, and land Earth. How prevention and treatment of the Global Warming?
Global average temperature at Earth's surface has increased by 0.74 ° C ± 0:18 (1:33 ± 0:32 ° F) over the last hundred years. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that, "the majority of the increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century, most likely caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases due to human activities" through the greenhouse effect. These basic conclusions have been put forward by at least 30 scientific and academic bodies, including all national science academies of the G8 countries. However, there are still some scientists who do not agree with some of the conclusions of the IPCC stated.
Even that is a problem, developed countries are supposed to be a pioneer in addressing global warming instead become the main source of heating it. It is closely related to industrial processes is a major cause of global warming.
If the terms of global warming, earth systems can be grouped into two areas, namely the area of ​​heat production and heat neutralizing region. The main areas of heat-producing countries are large and mature. So it is quite difficult to urge them to stop activity, particularly industry, which became berlebih.Daerah geothermal heat production is the highest supplier of carbon dioxide. Because industrial activities such as burning fossil fuels, namely oil, coal, and natural gas to produce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in large quantities. Burning of these materials add 18.35 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year.
While the current world energy consumption (excluding firewood), a little under 40% is oil, 27% coal and 22% natural gas, while hydroelectric and nuclear power accounted for 11% of the rest. In addition to the fossil fuels that produce the highest pollution, coal also produces the most carbon dioxide per unit of energy.

Prevention and management of Global Warming

            Total consumption of fossil fuels in the world increased by 1 percent per year. Measures undertaken or are being discussed at this time there is nothing to prevent global warming in the future. The current challenge is to overcome the effects that arise while performing steps to prevent increased climate change in the future.
Severe damage can be overcome in various ways. Coastal areas can be protected by a wall and a barrier to prevent the ingress of sea water. Alternatively, the government can help the population in coastal areas to move to higher ground. Some countries, like the United States, can save plants and animals while maintaining the corridor (lane) habitat, vacate the land that has not been built from south to north. Species can slowly move along these corridors leading to cooler habitats.
There are two main approaches to slow the increasing greenhouse gases. First, it prevents the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by storing the gas or its carbon component elsewhere. This is called carbon sequestration (removing carbon). Secondly, reducing the production of greenhouse gases.

Removing carbon

The easiest way to reduce carbon dioxide in the air is to preserve trees and planting more trees. Trees, especially young and fast growing, absorb carbon dioxide, breaking it down through photosynthesis and store carbon in the wood. Around the world, the level of encroachment has reached an alarming level. In many areas, the plants that grow back a little once because the soil loses its fertility when converted to other uses, such as for agriculture or construction of residential houses. Steps to resolve this is to reforestation that play a role in reducing the increasing greenhouse gases.
Carbon dioxide gas can also be removed directly. How to inject (inject) the gas into oil wells to bring oil to the surface. Injection can also be done to isolate the gas below ground such as in oil wells, coal seams or aquifers. This has been done in one of the drilling platform off the coast of Norway, where the carbon dioxide is brought to the surface along with the natural gas captured and reinjected into the aquifer so it can not return to the surface.
One of the sources of supply of carbon dioxide is the burning of fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels began to increase rapidly since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. At that time, coal became the dominant energy source for later replaced by oil in the mid-19th century. In the 20th century, gas started to be used as an energy source. Change of trend in the use of fossil fuels is actually indirectly have reduced the amount of carbon dioxide released into the air, because gas releases less carbon dioxide than oil and much less than coal. Nevertheless, the use of renewable energy and nuclear energy further reduce the release of carbon dioxide into the air. Nuclear energy, although controversial for reasons of safety and dangerous pollution, does not emit carbon dioxide at all.

Handling Internationally

            Controversy handling of global warming is an issue that has seized the energy and time from all over the country. Still the economic expanse between developed and developing countries led to an agreement that can not be fulfilled. Bound commitment and long-term funding to the demands of developing countries ahead of the Kyoto Protocol which will expire in 2013. Meanwhile, on the other hand, concerns over economic growth and the absence of accurate emission reduction systems in developing countries is the reason country- developed countries are reluctant to approve it. The existence of the news media on this issue considering interesting to watch the media also has a viewpoint and a variety of interests in it. The study looked at the frame Compass in reporting tackling global warming controversy between developed and developing countries. Skeleton framing used as a method of research is Zhongdang and Gerald M. Kosicki with technique: syntax, script, thematic, and rhetorical. These results indicate that the news Compass focus more on developing countries which still leads to disillusionment with the developed countries because unilateral interests still contained therein. Although various steps have been taken to motivate developed countries in decision making. Compass saw unilateral interests of developed countries degrading existence developing countries for their own benefit. It looks through the framing is applied emphasis on economic aspects that should give priority to the humanity as a reference in view of these conditions regardless of economic stretch in it.
International cooperation needed to successfully reduce greenhouse gases. In 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 150 countries pledged to address the problem of greenhouse gases and agreed to translate this intention into a binding agreement. In 1997 in Japan, 160 nations forged a stronger agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol.
This agreement, which has not been implemented, called on the 38 industrialized countries that hold the greatest percentage in the release of greenhouse gases to cut their emissions to 5 percent below the level of emissions in 1990. This reduction should be achieved by 2012. In the beginning, the United States volunteered to carry out a more ambitious cuts, promising a reduction in emissions by 7 percent below 1990 levels; The European Union, which wants a tougher treaty, committed 8 percent; and Japan 6 percent. The rest of the 122 other countries, mostly developing countries, were not asked to commit to the reduction of gas emissions.
However, in 2001, the new US president elect, George W. Bush announced that the agreement for the reduction of carbon dioxide is a very large cost. He also denies the claim that developing countries are not burdened with the carbon dioxide reduction requirements. Kyoto Protocol does not affect anything if the industrialized countries are responsible for contributing 55 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in 1990 was not ratified. This requirement is met when in 2004, Russian President Vladimir Putin ratified this treaty, giving way for the entry into force of this agreement began February 16, 2005.
Getting Started Handling Global Warming By Individuals

            Reduce Meat Consumption Veg emproduksi CO2 and methane-laden meat and requires a lot of water. Farm animals such as cows or goats is the largest producer of methane when they digest food them.1 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN mention meat production accounts for 18% of global warming, is greater than the contribution of all transport in the world (13.5%). Furthermore, the FAO report, "Livestock's Long Shadow", in 2006 described that livestock accounts for 65% of world gas nitrous oxide (310 times more potent than CO2) and 37% of world methane (72 times more potent than CO2) .2 In addition, , United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the guide book "Kick The Habit", 2008, mentions that the meat diet for each person per year accounted for 6,700 kg of CO2, while the vegan diet per person only accounted for 190 kg of CO2! 3 Not surprisingly, The UN's leading climate expert, who is Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the UN, Dr. Rajendra Pachauri, encourages people to eat less meat.
Tree Planting One rather large-sized trees can absorb 6 kg CO2 per tahunnya.1 Throughout his lifetime, one tree can absorb one ton CO2.7United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) reported that deforestation accounts for 20% of greenhouse gas emissions kaca.3 As we know, trees absorb carbon present in the atmosphere. When they are cut down or burned, carbon that once they absorb most of it will be released back into the atmosphere. So, think a thousand times before cutting down trees around you. Deforestation is also associated with the farm. Did you know an area of ​​rainforest the size of one football field every minute of land cleared for cattle grazing? When you turn into a vegetarian, you can save one acre of trees per year.
Environmentally Friendly Travelling Try to walk, use teleconferencing for meetings, or go together in one car. When possible, use vehicles that use alternative fuels. Each 1 liter of fossil fuel is burned in car engines accounted for 2.5 kg CO2.1 If the distance is close and not rush time, you can choose the train rather than plane. According to the IPCC, flights by aircraft accounted for 3-5% of greenhouse gases.
Reduce Shopping Industry accounts for 20% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions and mostly derived from fossil fuel use. The type of industry that requires a lot of fossil fuels for example iron, steel, chemicals, fertilizer, cement, glass, ceramics, and kertas.3 Therefore, do not be throwing stuff, then buy a new one. Each process of production of goods accounted for CO2.
Buy Organic Food Organic Soil capturing and storing CO2 is greater than conventional farming. The Soil Association added that organic production can reduce 26% CO2 contributed by agriculture.
Use Energy Saving Lamp When you change one light in your home with energy saving lamps, you can save 400 kg of CO2 and energy-saving lamp 10 times more durable than regular incandescent bulbs
Use Fan AC that uses 1,000 Watt power accounted for 650 grams of CO2 per hour. Therefore, maybe you could try using a fan.
Your clothes drying under sun rays ila you use a dryer, you pull out 3 kg of CO2. Drying clothes naturally is much better: your clothes more durable and energy used do not cause air pollution.
Organic Waste Recycling Waste Disposal (TPA) accounted for 3% of greenhouse gas emissions through the methane released during the decomposition of garbage. By making compost from organic waste (such as food scraps, paper, leaves) for your garden, you can help reduce this problem
Separate Waste Paper, Plastic, and Cans in order to Recyclable Recycling aluminum can saves 90% of the energy needed to produce new aluminum cans: 9 kg of CO2 per kilogram of aluminum! For 1 kg of recycled plastic, you save 1.5 kg of CO2, to 1 kg of paper that is recycled, you save 900 kg of CO2.


Nama   : Niken  Yuanita
Kelas   : 4EA18
Tugas   : Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2
First Experience Learning English

            My experience started in elementary school subjects were taught English. At that time, as I recall the English language subjects are taught in class 6. While in previous classes I had not received these subjects. Somehow, I also do not really know anything about it. But that the existing curriculum during the first itu.Materi taught by homeroom teacher about the meaning of a noun that exist around us. Continues to interpret the names of the months, the names, the name of a fruit and much more.
I used to think English is easy and fun, because I thought English was not much different from the Indonesian. Develop or stringing words in the English language is like we are stringing words in Indonesian. Staying Indonesian language word we translate into English and then I assemble like indonesia.Tapi language wording in the first, after rising to a junior high school I was a different mindset about the English language.
Mindset Being Changed.

            After graduating from elementary school I went to tinggkat junior / SMP. The junior I also get the subjects of English, but English at secondary school level material increase even more, it is only natural in the world of education. English class in junior high school, I was taught by English teachers on formulas to construct a sentence. At that time I did not know if the formulas are taught it is grammar. After a long period of class 1 SMP (now grade 7 smp) until the third grade I get so much material, ranging from simple formulas to a level that is more complicated. Instead of increasing my english, I became even more confused with formulas that are taught.
            Of conditions that do not quite understand the formula English taught in junior high, I still go to school to senior secondary level / high school, so although my English language test score is not that great. In high school English class is not much different, father / mother-his teacher he teaches formulas as well, similar to what I learned in junior high. The difference formulas were more developed with the sentence pattern which seems to me more rumuit again, I am more confused again. But I do not give up so easily, at home I try to review and study itself sedik-by-bit. Although ultimately I still feel confused, but the important thing I've been trying. Sometimes I also ask my friends who could AGAP English, but the answer is still not satisfactory / still floating.
Finally to my third grade sma graduation exams and grades of subjects of English became a benchmark value of graduation. I'm actually at the time it was worried not pass, because my english is still doubtful. But fortunately the value of the benchmark exam is not too high so I was grateful sma still pass the exam, although the value of the English language subjects most unsightly compared with the values ​​of other subjects.
Graduated from high school I went on to higher education, albeit with minimal funds and the economic conditions of a chaotic family. But I remain grateful my parents are still willing menyekolahkanku. In higher education material taught English as was predictable, ketemunya formulas again, again and again, in fact, can dikata repeat the subject matter of smp until sma, yes indeed there is additional material. But despite repeat, the edges remain I still do not quite understand, still floating about really. From here I thought "What yes I have to memorize formulas that Dula if you want to master English? But the yes anyway, if you want to speak only have to memorize the formulas used to be" and worse still "want to use a formula which yes, create ngunkapin / say this, what formula using this or that or the other again, after a long time head headache happens ". At that time, I conclude that the English language is really hard to be learned and I was not too excited to learn the English language.
Finally I Open Mind

            Amid considerable sense of disappointment, I try to look for a course on the internet, I thought "yeah who knows kursusan find a place nice". Of the many sites / web kursusan I visited there a website / web mernarik me to linger on the site. The site of his father's firm, which made me interested in the site he found the grammar is not the purpose of studying the language, it was as if bilau grammar rule out the teaching system, but it does not mean that grammar is not taught. Still taught grammar, but not the ultimate goal to learn English as fast to tell you earlier.
From here I started to change my mind 'oh yes it turns out that way, the way of learning .. "and most do not interest me so intrigued again to learn English, so even if starting from zero again but not what, important knowledge that hopefully can be useful.

Jumat, 10 April 2015

Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2

Nama : Niken Yuanita
NPM : 15211166
Kelas : 4EA18
Passive Voice
                        A sentence can be either in the active or passive voice. In an “active” sentence, the subject perform the action . In a “passive” sentence, the subject receives the action . To make an active sentence into a passive sentence, follow the steps :
1.  Place the complement of the active sentence at the beginning of the passive sentence.
2.  If there are any auxiliaries in the active sentence, place them immediately after the new subject agreeing in number with the subject
3.  Insert the verb be after the auxiliary or  auxiliaries in the same form as the main berb in the active sentence.
4.  Place the main verb rom the active sentence after the auxiliaries and be in the past participle.
5.  Place the subject of the active sentence after the verb in the passive sentence preceded by the preposition by .( This  can be elimited completely if it is not import)nt or is understood )
Study the following possible word orders for passive voice
Simple Present Or Simple Past
(Am,is,are,was,were ) + (verb in past participle)
Example :
Active    : The writer writes 3 letters for President.
Passive  : 3 letters are written by the writer for President.
Active    : She waters this plant every two days.
Passive  : This plant is watered by her every two days.
Active    : He met them yesterday
Passive  : They were met by him yesterday
Active    : She watered this plant this morning
Passive  : This plant was watered by her this morning
Present Progressive Or Past Progressive
(Am,is,are,was,were ) + being  (verb in past participle)
Example :
Active    : He is meeting them now.
Passive  : They are being met by him now.
Active    : She is watering this plant now.
Passive  : This plant is being watered by her now.
Active    : He was meeting them.
Passive  : They were being met by him.
Active    : She was watering this plant.
Passive  : This plant was being watered by her.
Present Perfect Or Past Perfect
(Has,have,had) + (verb in past participle)
Example :
Active    : He has met them
Passive  : They have been met by him
Active    : Aldo has gone to Makkah.
Passive  : Makkah has been gone by Aldo.
Active    : He had met them before I came.
Passive  : They had been met by him before I came.
Active    : She had watered this plant for 5 minutes when I got here
Passive  : This plant had been watered by her for 5 minutes when I got here
Modal + be + (verb in past participle)
Example :
Active    : He will meet them tomorrow.
Passive  : They will be met by him tomorrow.
Active    : She will water this plant this afternoon.
Passive  : This plant will be watered by her this afternoon.
Active    : The farmers are going to harvest the crops next week
Passive  : The crops are going to be harvested by the farmers next week.
Modals + Perfect
Modal + have + been +  (verb in past participle)
Example :
Active    : He will have met them before I get there tomorrow.
Passive  : They will have been met by him before I get there tomorrow.
Active   : She will have watered this plant before I get here this afternoon.
Passive  : This plant will have been watered by her before I get here this afternoon.
Example : Active Setence
1.    John is calling the other members
2.       Martha was delivering the documents to the departments
3.       The other members have repealed the amandement
4.       The delegates had received the information before the recess.
5.       The teacher should buy the supplies for this class.
6.       Somebody will call Mr.Watson tonight.
7.       The fire has caused considerable damage
8.       The company was developing a new procedure before the bankruptacy hearings began
9.       John will have received the papers by tomorrow.
10.     The executive committee approved the new policy.
Example : Passive Sentence
1.       A great deal of property is destroyed by hurricanes each.
2.       Thirty houses were destroyed by the tornado.
3.       Several new proposal are being considered by the committee.
4.         The bill may be paid by credit card
5.         You will be always loved by me
6.         Chris John is knocked down by Tyson easily
7.         We are taught by Miss. Janet everyday
8.         The book isn't written by her
9.         The fried chicken is being cooked by my mother
10.       Ayus’s cloth is being washed by Ayu.
Daftar Pustaka :
Michael A. Pyle, M.A. and Mary Ellen Munoz Page,M.A. CLIFFS  TOEFL Preparation Guide